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Showing posts from 2013

Quick tutorial - Shell script

This tutorial shows the very basics of how to make your own commands for Terminal, in other words shell scripts.

First we are going to create a simple nano file which is going to be the base for your script. This single file will contain all the information for your command.
nano /notice that .sh is not required but it clarifies things. Also remember to consider that some of the command names may already have taken.
In this case I will make a script that shows date and configuration of the computer. Write date and ifconfig and save the file.

This is not over yet though! You can't run your command without doing some actions first.
chmod +x  tellmesomething.shgives the needed rights for all the users to execute this command.

sudo cp /usr/local/bincopies your script into this location so you are able to run it.

Now you are able to run your very own script and it should look like this:

Now you know how to create a basic shell script. Here is some comma…

Installation and management of SSH

SSH server is a software that allows you to manage computers from distance. Today I will install it and show you how to create a new account with a webpage.
Installing SSHI started installing SSH with the commandsudo apt-get install openssh-server (Like everytime it is still important update your package list before installation (sudo apt-get update).)
After this I tested my server and logged in with my own account. Since I am using the live Cd I need to create a password first or I am not able to continue very far (can be done with passwd). If you are not sure about your username you can simply check it by running the command whoami.

I logged in as xubuntu ssh xubuntu@localhost. The connection had been created and so far everything seemed to be fine. Time to create a new account!
Creating an account sudo adduser [username] is the needed command when creating a new account. In my case I created a test user called maryrascal, so I typed sudo adduser maryrascal in my Terminal.

At this po…

Installing LAMP

LAMP = Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP

1. Installing Linux  More detailed information from my previous post.

Before starting the installation of a new OS make sure you have all the important files from your computer in a safe place (just in case something goes wrong). I used Buffalo's external hard drive (250 Gt).I started by downloading Xubuntu 13.04 (64 bit version) torrent file and used UNetboot to create a bootable memory stick.When the Live USB was done I restarted my computer, pressed F12 during the start-up and navigated myself to Boot manager where I chose to try Xubuntu without installing.I opened the internet browser and made a Google search to lightly test my new OS.  
2. Installing Apache More detailed information from my previous post.
Before installing anything it is important to update in order to get all the newest versions of packages. Do this with the command sudo apt-get update in Terminal.After this start the installation of Apache2 by writing sudo apt-get install apac…

Installation and management of Apache

First things first - before starting the operation it is necessary to update in order to get the latest versions of packages. Use the command sudo apt-get update 
After this you can now install Apache2. Write  sudo apt-get install apache2  on to your terminal, except installation terms with Y and enter and you are ready to go.

 sudo a2enmod userdir basically changes the location folder to user's directory, making it easier to control while all your important files stay in a one and same place. Now Terminal will ask you to restart the server and make sure you will execute it properly. 
Go to your home direction (e.g. /home/xubuntu/ Remember! if you are not sure about your identity you can always ask it by writing  whoami ).
Create a new folder  mkdir public_html  and enter. In my case I wanted to make a test file to see if my server is working. 

After saving I navigated myself into the front page. You can use your PC's IP address ( can be found with ifconfig ) and write it to a …

Searching and installing softwares with Linux Terminal

Before starting to search the softwares you are interested in it is necessary to update the package lists by using the following command:

sudo apt-get update
This is how you will get all the newest versions of all the available packages.
In my experiment I searched for softwares with the keywords that met my interests and I didn't have any further experience.

1. Gjiten

Since I'm learning Japanese language I wanted to find an application that could support my studies. I found from its looks stripped yet comprehensive software called GJiten.
Searching and installing the softwares are done with the commands;

apt-cache search your keywords (Mine were Japan Kanji)sudo apt-get install your software (e.g. Gjiten)

After running the install command Linux Terminal will make sure that this is the software you really want to get by telling how much additional disk space the program will take. You can continue installing and press "Y" or cancel the operation with "n".


Exploring Linux Terminal and Command-Line Tools

Even though I have used terminal based command-line tools before I have never had to go really deep into the program, so I would say this is totally a new thing for me and I feel excited!

Testing some of the Command-Line Tools 1. Zip and Unzip At first I started by creating a new folder "Testikansio" and added there three files (Tiedosto1, Tiedosto2, Tiedosto3). These are the files I want to put in a one single zip file and I can do it with the following command:
zip Pakattu Tiedosto1 Tiedosto2 Tiedosto3
It tells the computer to create a zip file called "Pakattu" and copies the wanted files inside that new file.  At this point I tested the unzip command unzip after deleting the original files. If there would be identically named files in the same folder Terminal would ask if the user wants to delete, rename or cancel the process. 
2. Seq
Seq is a mathematical tool that allows you to determine the wanted numbers inside a restricted area. For example- the…

Comparing softwares by using Windows and Linux

This time the homework assignment was all about softwares. The task was to compare the softwares we are personally using at the present time to ones we can find for free on Linux. I picked my 3 softwares pretty quickly and started the mission.

1. ITunes and Clementine Music Player I really like ITunes and it is the "must" software for listening to music for me. The layout is clear and easy on the eyes.
I like the fact ITunes basically does everything for me - from searching the album cover to naming and categorizing the songs I just uploaded. What could be easier!

ITunes also has a wide selection of radiochannels. You can just pick the genre and get the list of the channels playing your favorite music. Personally I use ITunes just for this purpose and I often catch myself listening to Kicking country and KAWAii Radio.

With Linux I wanted to give a try to Clementine Music Player. I would say it is the stripped version of ITunes. Don't get me wrong because this sof…

Getting known with Linux

I think it's only natural that our first homework assignment in Linux course was to burn the disk image of Xubuntu on CD (or on memory stick) and test it. This is how it went for me.

Step 1 - The backup

Before starting the operation I want to make sure that if everything else goes wrong atleast I have my important files still left. I used my old but trusty Buffalo's external hard drive (250 Gt).

Step 2 - Downloading the operating system

I got my Xubuntu 13.04 torrent file simply from I chose the 64 bit version and opened it in BitTorrent ( where I could start the download.

Step 3 - "Burning" the disk image

Since I didn't have empty 800mb cd's that the operation system needed I decided to use a memory stick.This method takes a little bit longer but it's definetly not hard.
First I needed to make my USB memory stick bootable so I downloaded a software called UNetboot.
This software is designed to create b…